MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF SURFACTANTS

Abstract: one of the most acute and pressing problems of sustainable development in the coming century can be providing the population with quality drinking water. According to estimates of the World Health Organization, the frequency of diseases arising from the use of poor-quality drinking water is the highest. Pollution of the environment by surfactants is a great danger to the entire biosphere. Unlike organic substances, they are not subject to degradation and, in addition to the direct toxic effect on living and plant organisms, tend to accumulate in food chains, which increases their danger to humans.

The flow of surfactants into reservoirs occurs mainly from man-made sources. With the inefficient purification of water, surfactants enter the natural reservoirs, the soil, and along trophic feeding routes reach people. Accumulating in reservoirs, surfactants have a strong toxic effect on the flora and fauna, worsen the organoleptic characteristics of water, prevent the processes of self-purification of water bodies. Even small amounts of surfactants cause abundant foaming, disrupt oxygen exchange in water bodies, and inhibit photosynthesis.

To achieve one hundred percent purification of wastewater from surfactants is almost impossible. In this connection, the search for new and improvement of existing methods of analysis of surface-active substances is very important.

The article presents the main features and characteristics of chemical and physico-chemical methods for the analysis of synthetic surfactants.

Keywords: physical methods of analysis, chemical methods of analysis, surfactants

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